Deregulation Transatlantic Scheduled Airlines of the United States
Deregulation of the US airline industry in 1978 not only opened up the way for cut-throat competition on domestic routes but also enabled newcomers to start up new scheduled services on longer routes - especially Transatlantic services to Europe.
Capitol Transamerica Jet24
Charter only --------- American eagle Global International ONA Arista Trans-Global
Guido Allieri - Italy (GFDL or GFDL ), via Wikimedia Commons
Anhedral, CC BY-SA 2.0 , via Wikimedia Commons
George E. Batchelor's Arrow Air was originally established in 1947 but had not been a flying airline for decades when it was re-established in May 1981. Arrow started as a charter airline and added scheduled services in April 1982 between California and Montego Bay. The initial fleet consisted of 707-320B/Cs, which were supplemented by 727s and DC-8s. By may 1983 it was operating services connecting Amsterdam and London with Denver, Tampa and Miami. Services also operated out into the Pacific to Honolulu, Guam and Pago Pago. Batchelor had acquired Capitol International in 1980 and as that airline failed he transferred much of its assets over to Arrow Air, including 5 of its DC-10s.
Tim Rees (GFDL 1.2 or GFDL 1.2 ), via Wikimedia Commons
Even so Arrow was losing money into 1984 and cancelled several routes, such as Tampa-London. It also re-oriented its route map from East-West to North-South concentrating on San Juan, Puerto Rico. By the end of 1985 the San Juan hub connected to Montreal, Toronto, New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Balitmore, Orlando and Miami. A wide-ranging charter business was also run including charters for the US military. The crash of one of these military charters on December 12, 1985 resulted in the closure of all passenger operations and a Chapter 11 filing. From then on arrow would focus only on cargo operations.
Metro International Airlines
Metro was formed as the passenger division of the major certified cargo operator Flying Tigers in December 1980 and started operations in March 1981. Tigers had just taken over its long-term competitor Seaboard World and was at the height of its powers. Metro operated mainly on behalf of Tower Travel and flew a series of charters. Scheduled services opened on March 25, 1982 between New York JFK-Brussels-Tel Aviv. A Chicago-Brussels service was added soon after. The initial fleet comprised 3 ex-Singapore Airlines Boeing 747-212Bs registered as N747-N749TA (later re-registered N747-749FT). The 747s were configured into a 3 class Captain's Deck / Metropolitan / Economy layout.
Rolf Wallner (GFDL 1.2 or GFDL 1.2 ), via Wikimedia Commons
All 3 747-212s were sold to Pan Am in early 1983 and they were replaced in March 1983 by the former Braniff 747-127 N601BN and for four months, February-June, a World 747-273C, N748WA, was also leased. The operation was not a financial success and it seems that it was being wound down in 1983. N601BN would join the successor company Tower Air, begun by Morris Nachtomi a key figure in Metro.
Ken Fielding/https://www.flickr.com/photos/kenfielding, CC BY-SA 3.0 , via Wikimedia Commons
Orion Air was the operational arm of The Aviation Group (TAG) formed in 1977 to operate cargo services. Cargo operations grew with the acquisition of Zantop Airways and contracts flying large numbers of 727s for Purolator, Emery and UPS. In October 1984 approval was granted to fly both charter and scheduled services and in 1985 the airline was acquired by a natural gas company called Primark. In 1989 a single ex-Pan Am 747-121, N751PA, was leased from Evergreen and used for a variety of European charters - usually as subservices to Luxair's passenger arm Lion Air, which itself had a programme of work for Airtours in the UK and used the Orion name at times. One of Lion's own 747s, LX-GCV, confusingly wore Orion, Lion and Airtours titles all at the same time. Orion's operations ended in December 1989 as cargo contractors began their own airlines and the charter arm was sold to Ryan International.
Michel Gilliand (GFDL 1.2 or GFDL 1.2 ), via Wikimedia Commons